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The production of battery cells requires a long chain of processes which traditionally belong to different disciplines such as chemical engineering, production engineering, and electrical engineering. Thus, a deep understanding of the entire process chain and the process interactions is mandatory, but also very challenging and requires intensive research. The processes considered in this special issue include coating and calendering as part of electrode production, as well as electrode stacking for cell production and formation as important cell conditioning steps. An overview of the articles discussed in “Advances in Battery Cell Production” can be found in the Editorial, article number 1900751, by Arno Kwade.
An 18650 cell filled with electrolyte by applying cycles of over‐ and reduced‐pressure is demonstrated. The pristine and the extracted electrolyte do not differ with respect to their carbonate content, however, sodium is found to be introduced by the sodium‐carboxymethyl cellulose (Na‐CMC) binder. More details can be found in article number 1801081 by Sascha Nowak and co‐workers.
18650 lithium‐ion battery cells are built in‐house with different amounts of an electrolyte. After wetting, the cells are opened, and the electrolyte is regained by centrifuging the entire jelly roll and quantified by a gas chromatography‐flame ionization detector and inductively coupled plasma‐optical emission spectroscopy. There is no influence of the filling protocol applying cycles with over‐ and reduced pressure on the electrolyte composition.
Artificial microstructures are generated, and their effective properties are determined to develop enhanced production processes for the electrode production of all‐solid‐state electrodes. Simulation results reveal the optimal trade‐off between electric and ionic conductivities. The simulated enhanced premixing routines for the active material, carbon black, and solid electrolyte allow further improvement of the cell performance
To reveal the effects of parameter variations in electrode production for lithium‐ion batteries, the prevention of undefined errors in the process chain is crucial. For targeted development, new concepts for suspension production and reproducible sample preparation, supported by methods of data mining, are proposed
The cell format of lithium‐ion batteries not only determines the type of filling process but also influences the distribution of the electrolyte within the cell. In situ neutron radiography is used to analyze the filling process of different cell types.
The impact of the roll temperature TR is implemented in an exponential compaction model for electrode calendering. Increasing TR linearly decreases the line load effort represented by the mass loading dependency µ. Furthermore, reduced contents of simultaneously less‐distributed additives lower the line load effort. Moreover, the adhesion strength of the coating improves with increasing TR and binder content.
Correlations between the microstructure and electrode macroscopic properties are established using discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The goal is to assess the impact of the calendering production step and the mechanism of intercalation on the electrode structure, mechanics, and connectivity.
A point estimate method is applied to an electrochemical battery model to quantify uncertainty propagation of the production process that induces deviations from a particle level to a cell‐to‐cell level. Simulation results show key parameters for a robust process optimization
Mechanical properties of lithium‐ion electrodes, such as the adhesion strength, play an active role for the life span of lithium‐ion batteries. Parameter‐ and process‐oriented investigations are conducted within electrode manufacturing to identify the main levers for the improvement of the adhesion strength of electrodes.
The production of lithium‐ion‐battery cells is very crucial for actual and prospective electric vehicles. Very time‐consuming steps are the electrolyte filling and wetting of the cells. Herein, the comparison of a polymer and a ceramic separator by a classical wetting balance test and a newly developed thermography method is presented
Cost drivers in lithium‐ion battery cell production are essential to enable potentials for cost reduction. In particular, the formation and aging processes represent a high potential for cost reduction because of the enormous time expenditure. Environmental conditions such as mechanical load and temperature as well as the electrical and chemical conditions during formation and aging are investigated
Interactions between product properties and process parameters in lithium‐ion battery production are limited to best‐practice‐experience rather than based on actual quantitative correlations. This work quantifies the influence of electrode deposition accuracy in cell assembly on the electrochemical performance of large battery cells. Electrochemical results show a linear decrease in the discharge capacity with a linear increase in the deposition error
Production chain of lithium‐ion battery cells is a highly complicated system, which makes it difficult to control and regulate economic and environmental target criteria (e.g., product quality, cost, and energy demand). This study presents a data‐driven concept for data acquisition, data management, and analysis, to enable the control and regulation of these criteria
The microstructure of lithium‐ion battery electrodes is determined by (dispersion) process and formulation parameters, which can be directly correlated with mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties. Accordingly, to optimize the properties of the electrode and, hence, the battery, the microstructure of the electrode must be improved. Therefore, carbon black is an important structuring component
A large number of battery cells are produced and extensively electrochemically investigated. Thus, a deep understanding of each process step within the production chain, and their resulting cell properties, is required. In contrast to other studies, the scope of this study is to investigate a large sample size of industrial‐scale battery pouch cells to ensure statistical relevance and generate distributed data of cell properties
Based on the method of the distribution of relaxation times, the impedance spectra of large‐format lithium‐ion batteries are evaluated. Thereby, a profound assignment of time constants to the respective underlying loss process is derived and applied to an aging study to gain electrode‐resoluted data
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is applied to evaluate the production process of stacked lithium‐ion cells. Assisted by the distribution of the relaxation times (DRT) method, the origin of accelerated ageing of erroneously assembled cells is revealed
This work introduces two techniques to optimize the production process of large‐format lithium‐ion cells using data‐driven methods. The first uses standard settings of the quality influencing factors to optimize the number and quality of produced electrode sheets. The second method determines the levels of the quality influencing factors, which optimize all quality parameters of the corresponding product jointly
Sorption equilibria of moisture in components of lithium‐ion batteries are an important fundament for an improved understanding of the post‐drying process, which has hardly been scientifically investigated. Therefore, adsorption equilibria of moisture in anodes with different material compositions and structures are presented. Furthermore, the contribution of the equilibria of the individual materials to the equilibrium of the anode is investigated
Defects in lithium‐ion electrodes can impair processability in subsequent processes. As the final process of electrode manufacturing, calendering finalizes their properties. Calendering‐induced electrode defects are, therefore, described and classified on the basis of a literature review, an expert survey, and operating experience. Moreover, their influence on subsequent processes of lithium‐ion battery production is shown
The high cost of lithium‐ion‐batteries (LiB) is attributed 25% to their production processes. One possibility for cost reduction and also for performance enhancement is increasing the solids content during electrode production using a novel twin screw extrusion process. This study mainly focuses on changes in physical and electrochemical properties and cost reduction appraisals due to increasing solids contents
There is scope for process improvements in lithium‐ion‐battery production due to intermittent coatings. New, improved cell stacking methods require a high coating quality. Herein, the influence of coating speed up to 50 m min−1 and wet‐film thickness up to 400 μm on the length of the intermittent coating edges is shown.
Ultra‐thick electrodes promise a higher energy density and a better ratio of active to inactive cell components than state‐of‐the‐art electrodes. By application of an improved manufacturing process, ultra‐thick cathodes (50 mg cm−2) with an enhanced rate capability were yielded, that provide an 18% higher specific energy at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 compared with a state‐of‐the‐art cathode (20 mg cm−2).
Previous investigations have never compared the separation process of the electrodes with regard to their influence on electrochemical performance. This knowledge gap can be closed with this study, which shows that laser cutting offers the potential to replace the die‐cutting process in a battery production line
For lithium‐ion‐batteries, water constitutes a substantial contamination, which makes a second drying step of electrodes and separators, just before the cell‐assembly, necessary. This work examines the effect of different post‐drying procedures as well as the properties of non‐post‐dried electrodes. Results show that not only low water content but also gentle post‐drying in particular guarantees a good electrochemical performance
The feasibility of an ecological and economic solvent‐free coating process of graphite‐based anodes for lithium‐ion batteries is demonstrated. The powder mixtures prepared in a two‐step mixing process are transferred to the current collector via an electrostatic process and permanently fixed by hot pressing. The dry‐coated anodes show comparable electrochemical performances to conventionally produced ones
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Massive quantities of natural gas are currently available for energy generation and chemical production. It has been estimated that the natural gas industry worldwide has already produced around 3000 trillion cubic feet of gas and the remaining gas reserve is estimated at 7000 trillion cubic feet. The global demand for natural gas today is around 100 trillion cubic feet and is expected to rise to about 130–210 trillion cubic feet in 2030. Therefore, even if half of the natural gas reserves are consumed for generating heat and electricity this corresponds to around 278 billion tonne equivalents of CO2 released into the atmosphere. That’s a lot of greenhouse gas that can contribute to climate change
A fascinating approach for utilizing the chemical energy contained in the carbon–hydrogen bonds of methane without the co-production of CO2 in the combustion process, described by the reaction equation:
Combustion of methane is a highly exothermic process generating heat whilst pyrolysis of methane is highly endothermic requiring the input of heat. Pyrolysis of methane is an equilibrium reaction, which begins to produce carbon and hydrogen around 300°C and goes to completion around 1000°C according to the above equation
One of the ways envisioned for engineering methane pyrolysis on an industrial scale is inspired by the iron ore blast furnace. In this process, iron ore, coke and limestone are fed into the top of the furnace and molten iron and slag so produced sink and are separated at the bottom of the furnace
A similar processing principle has been proposed for methane pyrolysis, whereby methane is fed into the bottom of a high temperature reactor filled with a molten metal such as Pb or a molten metal alloy NiBi at 1000°C. These metallic melts catalyze the formation of solid carbon and gaseous hydrogen. The carbon so formed floats to the top of the melt where it is siphoned off and transferred to a carbon storage tank. Of the co-produced hydrogen, 1/3 mole is used to heat the reactor, while the other 5/3 mole is cooled and stored for use as a fuel
A techno-economic assessment of the methane pyrolysis process shows it to be more cost effective ($0.95 per kg H2) than the steam methane reforming route ($1.12 per kg H2) to hydrogen, CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2
Based on the same processing principle, one can imagine a future zero-CO2 hybrid car powered by an on-board natural gas pyrolysis system, where the hydrogen product runs a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell or combustion engine and the carbon product is collected in a holding tank that is periodically replaced when full
A challenge in all-methane pyrolysis processes to make H2 is what to do with the vast amounts of carbon co-product? One possibility that has been considered is to make use of the reaction between the carbon and carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures around 1150°C:
to produce carbon monoxide for use as a synthon for making fuels and chemicals. This reaction has an associated endothermic penalty of DH = 172.6 kJ per mole, which could be provided by a renewable form of energy
Another possible use for the carbon could be in a direct carbon–oxygen fuel cell, although the overall electrochemical reaction C + O2 → CO2 has the disadvantage of producing carbon dioxide. One other possibility is to control the morphology of the carbon produced from the methane pyrolysis reaction, for example in the form of carbon nanotubes, graphene, amorphous and graphitic carbons, and carbon fibers. These different forms of carbon could find numerous applications that exploit their unique electrical, optical, mechanical, chemical and surface properties
It is worth noting that the energy intensity of the pyrolysis reaction to different forms of carbon could possibly be reduced by driving the decarbonisation photo-thermally. This would involve using a catalyst, such as [email protected], in which the nanostructured metallic component absorbs light strongly and broadly across the entire solar spectral wavelength range. Local heating of the metal catalyst would ensue to temperatures that would enable the conversion of methane to carbon and hydrogen
If all else fails one can always put the carbon back into the earth from whence it came. It has been found that carbon black is useful as a fertilizer. Non-toxic to plants and filled with small pores, the carbon black allows air to diffuse into the soil which helps plant roots to breathe. Carbon black also has the ability to improve nutrient availability and retention. It is also chemically very stable compared to organic fertilizers and will not decompose over time to carbon dioxide, therefore offering the advantage of remaining in the soil with its beneficial qualities for hundreds of years
Geoffrey A. Ozin Materials Chemistry and Nanochemistry Research Group, Solar Fuels Cluster, Center for Inorganic and Polymeric Nanomaterials, Chemistry Department 80 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3H6 Email: [email protected] Web Sites: www.nanowizardry.info, www.solarfuels.utoronto.ca, www.artnanoinnovations.com
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