Definition of Open pit Mining Parameters, Open pit Mining method, Bench, Open Pit Bench Terminology; Bench height; Cutoff grade; Open Pit Stability, Pit slope, Pit wall stability, Rock strength, Pit Depth, Pit diameter, Water Damage, Strip Ratio, Open-pit mining sequence, Various open-pit and orebody configurations; Ultimate Pit Definition, Manual Design, Computer Methods, Lerchs-Grossman method, Floating cone method; Open pit Optimization, The management of pit optimization, A simple example; The effects of scheduling on the optimal outline ; Optimum production scheduling; Materials handling Ex-Mine; Waste disposal; Dump design; Stability of mine waste dumps; Mine reclamation; Example of Open Pit Mining Methods
Even though this portable 3-stamp battery is much smaller than the large permanent batteries (shown below), it works in exactly the same way. The 3-stamp prospecting battery was made by Fulton Engineering and Shipbuilding Works of San Francisco, California. Small stamp batteries like this one, were deigned so that they could be easily taken apart for transportation and re-erected without cutting or fitting. There are no mortar blocks or foundation required, as the mortar rests on cross sills held to the main frame by heavy bolts. The stamps each weigh 250 pounds. They make 90 drops per minute and can crush from 3 to 4 tons of rock per day. The total weight of the 3-stamp mill including the wood frame would be around 4500 pounds
Automatic ore feeders are used to eliminate hand feeding of material into the stamp battery. The Challenge ore feeder has an iron hopper that collects ore from the ore bin. Under the hopper is a circular table inclined toward the stamp battery mortar which slowly revolves
The stamp battery regulates the flow of ore into the stamp mortar by controlling the rocker arm connected to the ore feeder. When the stamp mortar is full, a tappet on the stamp stem is too high to strike the rocker arm. When material is crushed and removed from the mortar, the stamps are able to fall lower in the mortar and the rocker arm will again be stuck by the tappet causing the table to rotate and feed more ore into the mortar. The amount of each movement can be also be controlled by the ore feeder.
To start, the mined rock enters the mill and passes over a grizzly (like a grate-kit# M1) that has bars spaced to allow rocks that the stamp battery can handle to drop through. If the rocks do not drop, they are sorted and crushed with a rock crusher (kit#M2). The rock is then dumped into an ore bin until being fed through ore bin gates (kit# M3) into an ore feeder (kit# M4), then into the stamp mortar. When the rock runs through the stamp battery, the finely crushed mixture is washed over a series of copper plates coated with mercury (amalgamation tables) where the freed gold combines with the mercury to form what is called amalgam (the process of amalgamation). The amalgam is scraped off the plates and put into a retort where the mercury is driven off, leaving the gold behind
In many mining districts, gold was found in close association with compounds of other metals such as iron, copper, lead, or zinc, preventing the gold from coming into contact and amalgamating with mercury. This type of gold ore is known as refractory gold and requires additional concentrating machines, such as Frue vanners or Wilfley tables (kit# M7) to complete the extraction process. The concentrate from these machines could be treated by a cyanide process or sent to a smelter to free the gold
Our stamp battery now includes, along with the original WSM castings, a realistic wooden cam pulley, maintenance platform with bracing, two laser-cut amalgamation tables, pre-cut heavy wire for accurate stamp rods, new cam design, nut/bolt/washer castings, and laser cut wood posts and beams for a perfect, precision museum quality assembly. We have updated the original Western Scale Models assembly instructions to resemble our trademark step-by-step fully illustrated instructions.
Rock crushers are reciprocating- pressure breakers. They consist essentially of two crushing surfaces set at a small angle convergent downward, one fixed, the other movable, which approaches and recedes alternately from the fixed crushing surface. This model is based on a Joshua Hendy style rock crusher
The Wilfley table was made and patented in 1896, by Arthur R. Wilfley and first used in his mill at Kokomo, Colorado. The first table was sold in August, 1896, and by 1925, more than 22,000 Wilfley tables were in use. The table's great advantage was that it made a clear and distinct separation of various types of minerals based on their specific gravity. Many variations of the Wilfley table followed the initial design but they all worked on the same principle. The Wilfley table revolutionized ore dressing. Our model is designed after one of the early tables, so it can be used in any mill after the late 1890's
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